What are Your Industry's Particular Coal Needs?

Industries have different needs when it comes to coal specs, inventory issues and terms. KISPL understands your coal import requirements. Choose your industry sector below to find out how we serve you better.

power . . . . . . . . . . . . steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . cement . . . . . . . . . . .
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Know the Annual Coal Consumption of your Power Plant...

Capacity of
Power Plant

Station Heat

Specific Heat
of Coal

Plant Load

Annual Coal Consumption

KISPL serves you at every stage of Advisory and Execution Services.

From mine to plant, KISPL delivers peace of mind.....

demand planning
coal miner/supplier vetting
bid evaluation and management
contract negotiation
supplier management
contract management and compliance
logistics management
performance management
spend analysis
knowledge management
proposal lifecycle management

Coal policy in India

Understand India's coal and import policy framework through these articles

KISPL Power Trading

CERC monthly reports
::: KISPL :::

Form IV    

KISPL Application to UPERC

For Intra-State Trading License articles


Coal Solutions for Power Sector

KISPL provides superior grade low ash coal, 24% or less ash content

Efficiency Table of Coal Fired Power Station*

Power Units

Efficiencies %

Sub-Critical Steam Conditions

Built over the last forty years


Super-Critical Units



Ultra-Super-Critical Units

Under construction

50% (with further material advances)

* The efficiencies apply to power stations of units larger than 350 MW. Older and smaller units will have lower efficiencies

Coal Quality Requirements and Specifications*

1.Stoker Stoker is a type of coal firing in boiler. A stoker is also a device consisting of a feed and a grate and is used for feeding coal (or other solid fuel) into a furnace, distributing it over a grate, admitting air to the coal for combustion and providing a means for discharge of ash.




Total Moisture

8 - 15% (AR)

If too low, fines can be blown away from the bed without burning.


7 – 30% (ad)
3 – 35% (ad)

For overfeed stoker.
For spreader stoker.
Minimum ash content required so grate will be protected from reflected heat.

Volatile Matter

25 – 40% (daf)


Maximum size

30 mm


Size consist

Max. 30% - 3mm
Min. 25% +6mm

If too high can be blown from bed.

Ash fusion temperature

IDT min. 1200°C.

Ash melts and clinkers if too low.

Crucible swelling number

Max. 3

High swelling coals give uneven combustion.

2.Pulverised coal (known as pf, pulverised fuel) firing is combustion of powdered coal suspended as a cloud of small particles in the combustion air. It avoids the need for a supporting grate and therefore eliminates restrictions on equipment size, and the reason for its wide scale adaptation is its suitability in very large boilers. Substantially more heat is released per unit volume than in stoker firing. Because the coal is carried by the combustion air, residence times are much shorter than for stokers; just a few seconds. Despite the short residence time, good burnout can be achieved as long as the coal is sufficiently finely divided.

* Whilstcoals outside the following ranges can be burned and following specifications should normally be adhered to:




Total Moisture

15% (ar)

Reduces net calorific value. Creates handling problems if too high. Limits higher for lignites and low rank coals.


Max. 20% (ad)

Reduces calorific value. Generally should be low.

Volatile Matter

Min. 20 – 25% (daf)

For conventional pf burners.


Max.20-25% (daf)

For down fired pf burners.

Calorific value

As high as possible

With suitable equipment almost any calorific value fuel can be utilised.


Generally Max. 1% (ad)

Can be higher if blending or FGD is employed. Overall is dependent on local emission regulations.


Max. 1.5-2.0% (daf)

Various limits apply in a few countries only because of nox emissions.


Max. 0.2-0.3% (ad)

Figure normally for inland coals. In general export coals well below 0.05%.

Hardgrove grindability index

Min. 45 – 50

Lower HGI values require larger grinding capacity and more energy.

Maximum size

Max. 40 – 50 mm

Dependent on capacity of grinding equipment.

Fines content (- 3mm)


High fines content can increase moisture content and create handling problems.

Ash fusion temperatures


Dry bottom boiler - IDT greater than 1200°C. Wet bottom boiler - flow temperature less than 1300°C.


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Coal Basics

A picture is worth a thousand words.
Select a term from the list

As received basis


Coal Conversions for Traders

convert coal enrgy from the given basis to desired basis

Basic Conversion calculator


Word of the Day

Fabric filters An alternative to electrostatic precipitation for the collection of fly ash whereby the flue gas is forced to pass through the interstices in fabric bags set up in an array sometimes referred to as a bag house. The fly ash particles build up as a layer on the surface of the fabric when they are occasionally shaken to dislodge and collect the fly ash.

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